sexta-feira, 11 de dezembro de 2009
Natal a combinar.
No meu ver nosso principal feito este ano foi evoluir nossa técnica vocal e principalmente cantar em voz. Gente, lembram que só cantávamos em uníssono?? lembram como foi o "Deus é amor" ? e o "se ao meu lado ele estivesse" so tinha 2 vozes e misturávamos tudo...
Hj temos hinos separado em 4 vozes.
Foi um feito incrível. Estão de parabéns. Vamos fazer tudo para levar o espírito através da música à todos que ouvirem. Se não este ano, no ano que vem.
Desenvolvemos uma amizade muito legal, uma integraçao entre as alas da estaca. Espero que essa amizade continue ... afinal vcs sabem né....
Mas acreditam que eu não tirei nenhuma foto!!!!???!!!! só tinha olhos pra noiva então vamos ficar aqui sobrando sem ver a foto dos cantores... hehehe pra num dizer que foi nenhuma, eu tirei do piano e do violino pq estava tirando foto da decoração....
Obrigada pela ajuda. Vcs são demais.
quarta-feira, 2 de dezembro de 2009
Eu já soube que tem um churrasco rolando por aí....
bem, no momento estou arrumando umas partituras bem legais pra esse natal... já já eu comento
Bju e divulguem a todos!!
terça-feira, 24 de novembro de 2009
Mas a Rejane deu essa dica muito legal:
Em pé, coluna reta porém confortável, encha a "barriga de ar". Dê pequenos "socos" na barriga ao soltar o ar falando as consoantes limpas com a volgal u.
Aqui estão a sequência das consoantes que deverão ser repetidas até 3 vezes.
BU DU FU GU JU LU MU NU PU RU SU TU VU XU ZU
Lembrem-se de falar a RU com som do erre fraco ( é "ru" e não "rru") "
A sensação deve ser a mesma do ''Ri-pi -ti-ki Ri -pi- ti - ki , sh sh sh sh sh sh sh sh sh , whst, whst, whst, whsssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssst"
Ganhamos selinho da Rejane do blog do Coral da estaca Ribeirão Pires! Obrigadíssima!! Nosso primeiro selinho olha só!! Todo o coral agradece! Viciante!! Cantar.. cantar... no banheirooo... no chuveiroo.... no onibus... na cozinha.... fazendo a liçao de casa.... CANTARR CANTARR
3 objetivos na blogosfera:
1º Manter o contato com os coralistas durante a semana, para lembrar de ensaiar os hinos, dar dicas legais, avivar o interesse pela música.
2º Compartilhar idéias com outros blogs e pessoas sobre técnicas vocais, regencia e blablabla.
3º Ver foto!!! muita foto!! foto de todo mundo!!! hauhauhaa
indicar 10 blogs viciantes:
Primaria SUD online - Não tem pra onde correr, eu visito esse blog quase todo dia! é fantástico, sempre tem novidades úteis para todas as áreas!!
Primary singing ideas - Idéias muito legais até mesmo para o coral
Quorum ala casa forte - É... tem muita coisa legal.(Tenho q fazer a propaganda né!)
SUD Caxangá - recursos de emprego. è sempre bom ficar antenado
Avaxhome- não é blog mas é viciante! muita coisa pra baixar, livro, musica TUDO
Soc Soc online - Pense numa mulher dedicada é a Simone!
Soc Soc Cordeiro - Mulheres virtuais! huahaua
Bem eu vou ficando por aqui pq esses são meus vícios! hehe só falta um que o blog que recebi o selinho, então meus votos restantes são todos para ele!!
Coral estaca Ribeirão Pires
Coral estaca Ribeirão Pires
Coral estaca Ribeirão Pires
sexta-feira, 20 de novembro de 2009
quarta-feira, 18 de novembro de 2009
segunda-feira, 16 de novembro de 2009
quinta-feira, 12 de novembro de 2009
Estudem com atenção o 'Cristo é já ressucitado', principalmente a 3 estrofe!! talvez tenhamos que marcar ensaios extras!! vamos nos dedicar para que isso não seja necessário! bjus a todos!
Desde o início da mudança o que nos preocupava era como transportar o piano!!! como carregá-lo por uma escada, andar a rua toda, subir outra escada e colocar o piano na nova casa (com cuidado para não desafinar... )
Isso só foi possível graças à disposição de nossos valentes coralistas, homens de vigor!!! não só para cantar mas tb para botar a mão na massa.
Após descer a escada da casa antiga:
Pegando o beco:Andando no meio da rua: Alguns começam a desanimar até que alguem falou no enterro do Santa Cruz: parece que tão levando um caixão??
Depois subiram por essa rampa:
E aqui está o resultado final:
É isso mesmo! o piano estava parcialmente desmontado e mesmo assim foi preciso 9 homens para carregá-lo!!
Eis os salvadores da pátria!!
Agradecemos ao pres. Braz, ao Conselheiro Pedro e aos coralistas! Vcs são 10!!!!!!!!!
quarta-feira, 11 de novembro de 2009
Belknap Press of Harvard University Press | 1968 | ISBN: 0674375017 | 935 pages | Djvu | 16,4 MB
A classic and invaluable reference work for over thirty years. Soon after its initial publication, the Harvard Dictionary of Music by Willi Apel was firmly established as a standard and essential resource for everyone concerned with music. The product of exceptional scholarship, it was praised as being comprehensive, concise, authoritative, scholarly, and enjoyable. Leopold Stokowski wrote, "I so often consult your dictionary of
music, and with such never failing enlightenment, that I must offer you my thanks for your unique book, so profound and so broad in scope ... The vast scholarship... is of immeasurable value to the whole world of music." The Christian Science Monitor called it "a highly satisfying book of musical knowledge, in which basic definitions are given with fine intellectual integrity, and musical facts are carefully separated from plausible deductions or theories."
For this second edition the dictionary has been thoroughly revised, updated, and substantially enlarged. Mr. Apel and eightyeight other eminent music scholars have contributed new articles and revised old ones completely. The already comprehensive list of accurate definitions has grown measurably and it now even includes nothus, pyiba, and meringue.
In the greatly expanded coverage of ethnomusicology, cumbia-an Afro-Panamanian dance form - and Vietnam are only two of the new entries. Additionally, all the general information about individual countries has been revised and the discussion of both theory and history has been amply increased. Developments of the last two decades are given special attention with particular emphasis on compositional techniques, including electronic music and serial music. Individual compositions, representative of every type from every era, are described.
The bibliography following each article, a unique feature of the first edition, has been updated and expanded. There are fifty percent more illustrations than in the first edition, including explicit drawings of instruments, clear music examples, diagrams, charts and a full-page outline of the history of music.
An extensive list of the most important music libraries and collections throughout the world with summaries of their significant musical holdings is a valuable part of the dictionary. The section on historical editions now lists fifty-three collections of music and briefly describes each volume within each collection.
The Harvard Dictionary of Music, Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged, is the result of imaginative, specialized, modern, and reliable music scholarship. Containing nearly 1000 pages of precise and accessible information on all musical subjects, it offers over fifty percent more material than the first edition. It is essential not only to the scholar of music, the professional performer, and the practicing amateur, but to everyone who has ever anticipated the pleasure of a weekly musical broadcast, purchased a favorite recording, or truly enjoyed a concert.
Baixe o formato djvu
quarta-feira, 4 de novembro de 2009
Bem, eu confesso que nunca contei pra vocês.. afinal nós não tínhamos condições nenhuma de participar de um encontro de corais, uma pena pois não teve nenhum coral da igreja lá. Faz uns dois anos. De qualquer forma tive o prazer de acompanhar o coro organizado pelo irmão Eduardo (é o profissional), e tive o desprazer de tocar num teclado, mas fora isso foi lindo.
Meu marido na epoca era meu namorado. QUe fofo!!
Veja o coro Monet no youtube.
- Salve Caput Ilitatum
- Jesus, nosso Salvador (mozart) só que foi em latim.
- Pai Nosso
DEsculpem a gravação, meu pai não é muito bom..
terça-feira, 3 de novembro de 2009
Quando tem acampamento das moças, não tem coral.
Que absurdo! Embora a maioria seja das moças, muitos coralistas são do MAS e são homens!!!
Quando tem serão, oratória, treinamento de liderança ou qualquer atividade a noite na estaca não tem coral.
Errado de novo, é verdade que o piano e o salão estão sendo usados, mas nada impede de ensaiar noutra sala num teclado, eu sei que ninguém gosta mas o pior é ficar sem ensaio! Sabem que eu sempre libero quem precisa estar na outra atividade.
blablabla não tem coral.
só não tem ensaio do coral quando for avisado antecipadamente que não terá ensaio do coral, ou durante a semana, ou pelo orkut. Mas se vc for supor alguma coisa, cuidado!!
Ontem tivemos a presença da ala beberibe no coral!! E sabe qual foi a recepção que eles tiveram?? nenhuma... porque??? porque o coral não tava lá!! Aí eu fico com muita raiva!! Não tem bombom domingo!! só se o hino ficar pronto.... aí nós ficaremos de bem de novo.... até lá.... ensaiem no banheiro!!
sábado, 31 de outubro de 2009
quarta-feira, 28 de outubro de 2009
Parabéns pro CLAYTON e pra ROZI que fazem isso ser possível!! e parabéns pro bispo CRISTIANO que incentiva né gente!! é MA-CA-XEI-RAAA!!
Eu nao podia deixar de colocar vcs aqui né!!
terça-feira, 27 de outubro de 2009
Quem quiser conferir baixe na barra ao lado
4shared>divisao da ala casa forte e parnamirim>Eu sei que vive meu senhor
Se não, fiquem com as fotos:
se divertindo enquanto eu fui procurar o Caio:
quarta-feira, 21 de outubro de 2009
E sabem o que mais?? o arranjo pout-porri quem montou foi a Sacha!!!! Sacha querida disponibiliza pra gente, valeu!!!!!!
recebemos um reforço de impacto dos jovens da ala casa amarela: todas contralto!
E preparamos nosso próprio lanchinho!! Valeu macaxeira!!
Só tem vcs viu!!!! vamos abalar agora!!!
Apresentando, Augusto, Thiago, Mateus, Caio cantando "Oh my soul hungered".... quem lembra dos ensaios em cima do milho???
Apresentando, Ala Beberibe com participação exclusiva de Brunna solando sozinha (olha a redundância mesmo huahuaa) Num arranjo extrondoso do hino Eu sei que vive meu Senhor com a melodia do hino Um pobre aflito viajor. 6 min e 20 segundos !!Meses depois tivemos a oportunidade de reproduzir o hino na conferência da ala Beberibe. Parabéns!
Apresentando a administração do coro: Sacha estreiando como pianista (parece que faz 200 anos né??) no Pout-porri missionário, escrito especialmente para ela (e pq o Pres. Ednei pediu)!! Temos também o fiel escudeiro.... proativo... exemplar secretário Genivaldo sempre distribuindo os hinarios, recolhendo, providenciando, arrumando as pastas, de olho na contagem para que nao faltasse nenhuma!!!! E por fim eu toda amostrada com o colar da família!
Quem lembra do repertório?? 'Quando Jesus voltar' simples e puro sem arranjo só no Espírito e o 'pout-porri missionário' ... era nosso máximo 2 hinos simples....
Mas a melhor parte... é que tinha lanchinho.....
Olhando para trás vemos o quanto evoluimos e vemos que temos muito potencial... vamos crescer mais ainda!!
Bjus para todos
Fernando estava tão feliz!! Todos nós estavamos!! E eu achava que seria pianista pra sempre e que o mundo nunca ía mudar. E a minha maior preocupação era quando que o Gui iria me escrever de novo na missão... huahuahaa
Agora vc pode ver o Tabernáculo.
Uma vista 3D, reparem nos microfones pendurados no teto que descem até o coro.... e o jogo de luzes no teto... magnífico... inspiradorr......
Você tb pode visitar outros lugares de Salt Lake.
ctrl afasta o zoom
shift aproxima o zoom
enjoy a visita!!
terça-feira, 20 de outubro de 2009
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA | 2002-06-28 | ISBN 0195150872 | PDF | 216 pages | 1.2 MB
An accessible exploration of an important and understudied music theory topic, Swain's book examines the dimensional technique of analyzing harmonic rhythm. Simply defined, harmonic rhythm is the relationship between changes in harmony and perceived changes in rhythm. This phenomenon plays a large role in shaping the texture and style of much of Western music, from Renaissance polyphonic pieces to the works of Debussy. Swain provides a clear and thorough discussion of how harmonic theory works, using a small core of repeated musical examples.
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W. W. Norton & Company | 1998-01 | ISBN: 0393317129 | 533 pages | DjVu | 11,8 MB
A greatly expanded edition of the National Book Award-winning masterpiece by a world-class pianist and writer on music. This outstanding book treating the three most beloved composers of the Vienna School is basic to any study of Classical-era music. Drawing on his rich experience and intimate familiarity with the works of these giants, Charles Rosen presents his keen insights in clear and persuasive language. For this expanded edition, now available in paperback for the first time, Rosen has provided a new, 64-page chapter on the later years of Beethoven and the musical conventions he inherited from Haydn and Mozart. The author has also written an extensive new preface in which he responds to other writers who have commented on his ideas.
Enjoy this great book! Brought to you by SMIRK
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The classical style
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The classical Style
Sacred Music, Sacred Time
David P. Goldman
What is sacred music? If we simply mean music that assists liturgy or prayer, the category includes Protestant hymns, Christian rock, church chant, musical aids for the memorization of sacred texts, and countless other kinds of music. Much music provides indispensable assistance to divine service, but so do the pastor’s trousers, which cannot be called sacred, indispensable though they may be.
Music that carries an association with liturgy may evoke religious feelings, whatever its provenance. Musicologists have proved that the “ancient chant” promulgated in the nineteenth century by the Benedictines of Solemnes was, in fact, their own invention rather than a historical reconstruction, but its associations are no less compelling for many Catholics.
There is music, though, that seems inherently sacred in character. “Whether it is Bach or Mozart that we hear in church, we have a sense in either case of what Gloria Dei, the glory of God, means. The mystery of infinite beauty is there and enables us to experience the presence of God more truly and vividly than in many sermons,” wrote Benedict XVI in his book The Spirit of the Liturgy (2000). Simpler music can foster camaraderie among worshipers and even communal joy. Authentically sacred music does more: It inspires awe, even fear.
The question, of course, is what makes it possible for music to convey a sense of the sacred in the way that Benedict avers. And the answer should be sought first in our perception of time. Because we are mortal, and because all religion responds to mortality, our intimations of the sacred arise from our experience of the tension between the mortal existence of humankind and the eternal life of God. In revealed religion, God’s time stands in contrast to the earthly time of days and years and the corporeal time of pulse and respiration. A creator God who stands outside nature also stands outside time itself. Eternity is incommensurate with natural time. God made the world ex nihilo before time existed and he will bring it to an end.
Eternity breaks into the temporal world through revelation. For Jews, the sanctification of the Sabbath introduces an element of eternity into natural time; for Christians, the eschaton breaks into the natural time of human history through Christ’s birth, death, and resurrection. God’s time, the time of salvation in the coming of the Messiah or the second coming of Christ, stands in contrast to the natural time of ordinary existence.
Music unfolds in time. The rhythms of the music of all cultures arise from the natural rhythms of respiration and pulse. Unique to the tonal music of the West, however, is its capacity to create a perception of time on two distinct levels, that is, the natural time of systole and diastole, and the plastic time of tonal events. The coincidence or conflict of durational and tonal rhythm, that is, between metronome time and the pace of tonal motion, gives composers the tools to depict higher orders of time. That is what makes possible the sacred in music, for our perception of the sacred involves a transformation in our perception of time.
Music begins with respiration and pulse, the inborn rhythms of human life. We may intensify these rhythms with percussive accents and electronic amplification and, through this intensification, achieve the momentary sort of exaltation that seems to buoy the audience at rock concerts. As Benedict has written, this is the opposite of Christian worship: “It is the expression of elemental passions, and at rock festivals it assumes a cultic character, a form of worship, in fact, in opposition to Christian worship. People are, so to speak, released from themselves by the experience of being part of a crowd and by the emotional shock of rhythm, noise, and special lighting effects. However, in the ecstasy of having all their defenses torn down, the participants sink, as it were, beneath the elemental force of the universe.”
We know, no matter what we do, that the rhythms of respiration and pulse will cease at the moment of death. But we do not know what eternity is. At best we can say what it isn’t, as in Psalm 90:4, through poetic hyperbole: “For a thousand years in thy sight are but as yesterday when it is past, and as a watch in the night.” Eternity manifests itself to us as an irruption of the divine into the temporal world, as a singularity, a moment that interrupts the procession of years and days, of systole and diastole.
Music can no more depict eternity than can ordinary language. The use of lengthy repetition in music or dance to empty our minds aims not at eternity but rather at timelessness. In JudeoChristian terms, timelessness is the antithesis of eternity, for God’s time is not an absence but rather a content so full that our minds cannot absorb it.
Music cannot represent eternity—no human artifice can—but it can direct the mind’s ear to the border line at which eternity breaks into temporality. This is the argument of St. Augustine, whose theory of time at the end of the Confessions is cited in textbooks as the precedent for the phenomenological and existential theories of time that flourished at the turn of the twentieth century. Music is one of the examples Augustine uses to expound his theory of time, but that theory reaches back to inform his account of music. His purpose was not to make time relative but to show how we perceive eternity’s intrusion into mortal experience. Thus, in Book VI of his De Musica, the theory of time becomes a theory of music, for music is Augustine’s laboratory for temporal investigation.
Eternity, as the Psalmist taught, is beyond our capacity to conceive, but eternity lurks in the perception of time as such. Our time is not commensurable with God’s time, Augustine writes: “Nor do you by time precede time: or else you should not precede all times. But you precede all things past, by the sublimity of an ever-present eternity; and you surpass all future because they are future, and when they come, they shall be past; but you are the same, and your years fail not.”
Augustine is not concerned with time in the abstract, but rather with the possibility of communication between God and humankind. “Lord, since eternity is yours, are you ignorant of what I say to you? Or do you see in time, what passes in time?” Aristotle’s Prime Mover has no need to communicate with humans and, for that matter, no means of doing so. Aristotle’s static time can have no interaction with the eternity of the biblical God—which means that if Aristotle’s description of time as a sequence of moments were adequate, we could not hope to commune with an eternal being.
But Aristotle’s theory, in Augustine’s view, leads to absurdities. To consider durations in time, we must measure what is past, for the moment as such has no duration. Events that have passed no longer exist, leaving us in the paradoxical position of seeking to measure what does not exist. Augustine’s solution is that memory of events, rather than the events themselves, is what we compare. “It is in you, my mind, that I measure times,” he concludes. If the measurement of small intervals of time occurs in the mind, then what can we say about our perception of distant past and future? If our perception of past events depends on memory, then our thoughts about future events depend on expectation, and what links both is “consideration.” For “the mind expects, it considers, it remembers; so that which it expects, through that which it considers, passes into that which it remembers.”
Expectation and memory, Augustine adds, determine our perception of distant past and future: “It is not then future time that is long, for as yet it is not: But a long future, is ‘a long expectation of the future,’ nor is it time past, which now is not, that is long; but a long past is ‘a long memory of the past.’” This is the insight that allows Augustine to link perception of time to the remembrance of revelation and the expectation of redemption.
An extensive literature connects the Confessions to the relativizing theories of time in Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger. But Augustine’s “long memory” and “long expectation” are not relative, for they presume the ontological primacy of revelation. Memory and expectation arise as eternity breaks into mortal time. In JudeoChristian teleology, revelation demarcates the “long memory of the past,” and the Eschaton informs the “long expectation of the future.” As Franz Rosenzweig put the matter in The Star of Redemption: “Revelation is the first thing to set its mark firmly into the middle of time; only after Revelation do we have an immovable Before and Afterward. Then there is a reckoning of time independent of the reckoner and the place of reckoning, valid for all the places of the world.”
Our memory of redemption in the past, however distant, and our expectation of salvation in the future, however remote, are the fixed points by which we judge time. As individual moments flee past, we struggle to keep them in memory so that our faculty of “consideration” can order them and judge them. Superior to our perception of these fleeting moments is memory. Memory in turn is understood through the expectation of events in time, through our faculty of “consideration.”
Augustine returns to the problem of time, memory, and expectation in De Musica. Although there is no consensus as to the date of De Musica, it seems likely that it was composed well after the Confessions, for Augustine weaves his earlier ideas about time into a better-developed theory of musical rhythm.
In De Musica, Augustine seeks to portray “consideration” as a form of musical number, that is, numeri iudiciales, “numbers [or perhaps rhythms] of judgment.” These “numbers of judgment” bridge eternity and mortal time; they are eternal in character and lie outside of rhythm itself, but act as an ordering principle for all other rhythms. They stand at the head of a hierarchy of numbers that begins with “sounding rhythms”—the sounds as such—which are in turn inferior to “memorized rhythms.”
Only the “numbers of judgment” are immortal, for the others pass away instantly as they sound, or fade gradually from memory over time. They are, moreover, a gift from God, for “from where should we believe that the soul is given what is eternal and unchangeable, if not from the one, eternal, and unchangeable God?” For that reason the “numbers of judgment,” by which the lower-order rhythms are ordered, do not exist in time but order time itself and are superior in beauty; without them there could be no perception of time. Memory and expectation are linked by the “numbers of judgment,” which themselves stand outside of time, are eternal, and come from God.
Augustine here proposes not merely a psychology of music but also an ontology: He seems to think that the “numbers of judgment” with which we evaluate rhythm exist eternally and were given to us by God. A thousand years later, the Renaissance philosopher most influenced by Augustine’s treatise, Nicholas of Cusa, put the matter somewhat differently: “Creative art, which the happy soul will attain, is not of its essence that art which is God, but rather participation and sharing in it.” The great composers never imagined that they were participating in creation, only imitating it. Sacred music is not revelation, just the next best thing.
We know almost nothing about the music that so deeply moved Augustine in Milan, so much so that he feared that its beauty might distract him from devotion. But ideas that seem obscure, for example his rhythmic hierarchy, do not suffer from transposition into the framework of modern music theory. On the contrary, they become clearer. Augustine’s hierarchical theory of rhythm fits uncannily well into the musical world that emerged in the fifteenth-century West.
Starting in Paris during the fourteenth century, and coming to full realization during the fifteenth, Western musicians found means to create tonal expectations so compelling that the hearer’s perception of the flow of musical time is guided by a sense of the musical future. Tonality—the system in which the horizontal unfolding of melody in time integrates with vertical consonance—has the unique capacity to generate a sense of the future.
Once musicians discovered how to link musical rhythm to the resolution of dissonance into consonance, Western music acquired a teleology. Every tonal work has a goal, the resolution of tonal tension in the return to the tonic by way of a final cadence from the dominant. The Austrian music theorist Heinrich Schenker identified a fundamental structure underlying each movement of a classical composition that guides a great passage away from and back to the tonic. All the elements of composition are there to fulfill this journey. Once the composer has created an expectation, it is possible to create tension by prolonging it, or create surprise and even humor by leading in an unexpected direction. Deep expectations of the future act upon memory through the judgment of our mind’s ear. Thus, for instance, the Schenkerian theorist Carl Schachter introduced the distinction between durational and tonal, and identified higher-order rhythms in tonal music—work consistent with Augustine’s teaching in the De Musica.
The two kinds of rhythm in Western music—durational and tonal—arise from a practice first described explicitly by the Flemish contrapuntalist Johannes Tinctoris in 1477, although (as musicologist Sarah Fuller has shown) the embryo of the idea can be found in the treatise De Mensurabili Musica, attributed to John of Garland at Paris in the late thirteenth century. All Western theory had taught that music was founded upon consonance, the intervals that nature had provided in simple proportions that created a sense of stability for the ear. To sound two melodies together in counterpoint, the pitches intoned simultaneously must be at consonant intervals. But the musicians of Paris learned that not all notes had to be sung in consonant relation, only those that sounded at points of rhythmic stability. Dissonances were permitted so long as they occurred at points of rhythmic instability and led to a consonance.
The resolution of dissonance into consonance in the context of rhythm gave music a powerful means to create deep expectations. From the rhythmic alternation of dissonance and consonance in the note-by-note progression of late medieval counterpoint, fifteenth-century composers learned to prolong the tension and resolution of dissonance and consonance in longer musical forms. In late medieval counterpoint, a single dissonant note could be accommodated at a point of rhythmic instability; by the sixteenth century, tonality made possible whole regions of relative instability within a longer form.
Western music sprang into life in full armor, like Athena from the head of Zeus, once the musicians of the fifteenth century learned to integrate rhythmic and tonal emphasis on a broader scale than note-by-note setting. Tinctoris remarked in 1470 that all the music worth listening to had been written in the preceding forty years—at the only moment in music history when a leading musician would have made that remark, and when it would have been true. This uniquely Western art came into full flower in the last third of the fifteenth century in the Flemish school of Dufay, Ockeghem, and Josquin and was adopted by the Catholic Church in the middle of the sixteenth century during the generation of Palestrina and Victoria.
The fundamentals of rhythmic and tonal emphasis are perceptible to anyone who can hum a tune. Even the simplest rhythm creates expectations; we assume that the pattern we hear will continue, and that one verse will be like the next. We judge the time of individual syllables and feet within that rhythm according to our expectations. Just as Augustine argued, we do not grope our way blindly from beat to beat; on the contrary, we hear the individual beats with our mind’s ear. Tonality allows the composer to create yet another level of expectations.
Take a melody everyone knows: Stephen Foster’s “Old Folks at Home.” The first two strophes—“Way down upon the Swanee River/Far, far away”—occupy four measures and end on the dominant in the bass (supporting the second scale step in the treble).
We expect that another four measures will follow, and bring us back to the tonic, or home key, and that is just what Foster does. Our mind’s ear demands that the second scale-step on which we lingered at the word “away” descend to the tonic at “That’s where the old folks stay.” The ear also wants the fifth degree, or dominant, in the bass to descend back to the tonic.
This garden-variety melodic structure is called antecedent-consequent and links a rhythmic expectation (a second four-bar phrase to follow the first four-bar phrase) to a tonal expectation (a move from the tonic to the dominant at the end of the first phrase sets up a cadence on the tonic at the end of the second eight-bar phrase). We know where each beat should fall and how the voice-leading should return us to the tonic, because our mind’s ear forms a judgment about the structure of the song.
The expectations evoked by the first eight bars of “Old Folks at Home” and countless other songs require no musical training to understand. But simple tunes as such do not evoke the sacred, whatever their sacred associations might be. Fortunately for students as well as teachers of music, the most pedagogical of composers, J.S. Bach, left us more than 150 works of sacred music whose purpose is to show how a simple hymn-tune can be prolonged in a more complex structure in a way that evokes the sacred. These are the chorale preludes and related chorale settings, which embed church hymns in a longer work. By choosing hymns as raw material for transformation, Bach is making a programmatic statement as well as a musical one.
Consider another melody in antecedent-consequent form, the Bach chorale “ Jesus bleibet meine Freude” from Cantata 147. In the familiar work known in English as “Jesu, Joy of Man’s Desiring,” Bach embedded this hymn in an orchestral setting, extending the time frame in which the expectations of tonal and rhythmic resolution are realized. Our expectations work on two levels. On the simpler level, we have the same sort of antecedent-consequent we heard in the Foster song; and on the more complex, we have the expansion in time of the chorale through a florid accompaniment. The intrusion of a higher order of expectations on the hymn tune is what evokes the sacred.
Even more poignant is the celebrated setting of the chorale “Sleepers, Awake” in Cantata 140. In this case, what appears to be an accompanying counterpoint not only extends in time the musical and rhythmic expectations of the chorale melody but also alters these expectations.
The expected resolution of the hymn-tune, with its four-square phrasing, is displaced in time by the florid counterpoint played by the strings. The quotidian sense of time associated with the hymn-tune encounters a second set of expectations that subsume the first. The two interlocking themes transform each other, shifting the rhythmic placement of voice-leading resolution. Bach, in effect, has introduced a higher order of time, in which a second set of expectations breaks in on the first.
The tension between the two sets of expectations, the simple hymn-tune and the overlaid counterpoint, generates a sense of the sacred. Bach cannot put the infinite into notes, but by transforming our perception of time, he can attune our mind’s ear to a higher order of time. The sense of the sacred arises from the response of our mind’s ear (Augustine’s “consideration” or numeris judicialis) to the juxtaposition of two temporal frameworks.
Pace Benedict, there really is nothing mysterious about it after the fact. Miraculous, maybe. It seems simple, but only a Bach could do it.
The chorale prelude was a venue for Bach to spell out the prolongation of the hymn-tune in schoolmasterly fashion. Bach is not more lawful than other composers (he fudged to fit melodies together when convenient); what delights us in the chorale from Cantata 140 is not mathematical fit but rather artistic surprise. In fact this method of transforming expectations informs all Western counterpoint starting in the mid-fifteenth century. It subordinates an individual melody to a voice-leading structure that also accommodates other melodies (or the same melody sung with displacement in time or pitch). Imitative counterpoint is not mathematical but rather programmatic. It begins with one set of expectations embodied in a single line of music and subsumes them in a larger voice-leading structure.
The tonal music of the West began with a teleology learned from Christianity, though, to be sure, the compositional techniques invented to evoke the sacred were employed later for secular purposes. Possibly the most astonishing example of a supervening rhythm occurs in the last movement of Robert Schumann’s piano collection Kreisleriana. Schumann moved within a musical culture whose spiritual mission was taken for granted (he composed a Mass and a Requiem).
The ordering of musical time by tonal teleology broke down with the so-called new German music of Liszt and Wagner. Writing in 1919, Franz Rosenzweig admonished the musicians to return to the Church and to the demarcation of time by revelation and redemption. In the chapter on Christianity (“The Eternal Rays”) in The Star of Redemption, he wrote: “What is sacrilegious in music is idealized time, with which it subverts real time. If it is to be made clean of its willful sacrilege, it must be removed from the Beyond, and brought to this side of time, and its ideal time must be made real. For music, that would mean to make the transition from the concert hall to the church.”
Revelation, he continues, “makes fast its point of reference in the middle of time.” Humanity can best understand it in the Church year, particularly in “the festivals of revelation,” which, “pointing backward toward the creation of revelation and forward toward revealed redemption, incorporate the immeasurable eternity of the day of God into the annual cycle of the Church year.”
By integrating itself into these festivals and in the Church year as a whole, the individual piece of music alights from the artificial frame of its ideal time and becomes wholly alive. . . . He who joins in singing a chorale, or who listens to the mass, the Christmas oratorio, the passion . . . wants to make his soul stand with both feet in time, in the most real time of all, in the time of the one day of the world of which all individual days of the world are but a part. Music is supposed to escort him there.
Western composers abandoned teleology in music at the same time they turned away from Christianity. Tonality enabled music to create deep expectations about the future. With the abandonment of tonality, listeners lost their map of the musical future, and found themselves trapped in a sort of Blind Man’s Bluff of a perpetual musical present. Churchgoers shunned twentieth-century composers as resolutely as they had embraced Bach or Mozart. As in other venues, churchgoers turned to popular music, the last bastion of the old tonality. Classical music played a diminishing role in religious life. Not even Benedict XVI’s advocacy has had much effect on church music. The music that attends worship of all Western denominations has little to do with the sacred in the sense that Benedict perceives it.
But it is too early to relegate Western sacred music to the museum. More children are studying classical music than ever before, and more people are converting to Christianity. I do not know to what extent the estimated 140 million Christian converts in China overlap with the estimated 60 million students of classical music. But the potential surely exists for revival of sacred music on a scale that humanity never before has seen.
Music, as Rosenzweig said, is there to escort the Christian to the time of the one day of the world of which all days are a part. Jews have a different sense of sacred time, for God sanctified the Sabbath, the last day of creation and creation’s goal. Sabbath observance is radically unique to Judaism and is the pivot of Jewish worship. Rather than journey to “the one day of the world of which all individual days of the world are but a part,” the Jews live in the seventh day, which God planted in temporality as a foretaste of the world to come.
Sacred time has a different meaning for Jews than Christians. Augustine believed that deep expectations of the future acting through memory create our perception of the flow of time. For Jews, as Abraham Joshua Heschel put it, time is merely the mask of eternity, which does not need to be recreated through musical artifice but is planted among us in the Sabbath. Melismatic chant that enhances recitation of the text remains the characteristic music of Jewish worship. The ordering of musical time through classical composition would be alien to the spirit of Jewish liturgy.
David P. Goldman is associate editor of First Things. He has written on Renaissance music theory and taught history of music theory at the Mannes College of Music, where he serves on the board of governors.
Poucos, ou melhor, pouquíssimos são os programas gratuitos de criação e edição de partituras. Achar algum programa com estes requisitos é quase como ganhar na loteria. Para tirar o bolso da mira dos programas pagos, muitas pessoas acabam migrando de programa em programa, utilizando as versões trial enquanto não expiram.
Free Clef é uma alternativa criada pela Daccord Music Software para quem precisa de um programa simples, ou para usuários iniciantes que queiram compor, transpor ou estudar música. O programa utiliza o formato de arquivo MusicXML.
Entretanto não se pode dizer que Free Clef seja um programa ruim, de maneira alguma! Muito pelo contrário, Free Clef, que já vem em português e inglês é um programa super fácil de usar, simplificado e com interface visual, isto é, não há códigos, expressões complexas ou qualquer dificuldade. Com apenas algum conhecimento de teoria musical pode-se tirar total proveito deste software.
Como não se trata de um programa profissional, existem vários aspectos falhos, como por exemplo: não é possível colocar ligaduras entre notas, exceto quando elas forem a mesma (ex: dó e dó, mi e mi); as expressões de andamento da música (presto, allegro, etc) não estão presentes, nem mesmo figuras como ritornelo ou stacatto (usado para violino, viola, cello e contrabaixo).
Em Free Clef todas as notas, acentos, pausas ou qualquer figura deve ser colocada “manualmente” (com o mouse). Não existem atalhos ou teclas de acesso para nenhuma função, portanto quem deseja agilidade e velocidade para escrever suas partituras, ou quem usa teclados MIDI para transpor pode não se identificar com este software.
Free Clef é um software livre, ou seja, de código aberto que pode ser modificado por qualquer usuário, portanto todos os erros, bugs, falhas e faltas podem ser corrigidas por qualquer usuário que possa programar na linguagem C++ utilizando a API open source wxWidgets.
Como já foi dito, Free Clef é um software muito interessante, mas não para quem procura algo de nível profissional. Free Clef traz o básico para se compor partituras simples e é ideal para iniciantes. Se você precisa de um editor de partituras com todas as ferramentas musicais, talvez a opção ainda seja comprar programas profissionais.
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AudioBooks ISBN: 9626349522 2009-03-03 MP3 320 Mb
Amid a background of wars and revolution, the 19th century produced many of the world's best-loved composers including Beethoven, Brahms, Chopin and Tchaikovsky. "Discover Music of the Romantic Era" charts the course of music through these turbulent but exhilarating times with 40 music excerpts. Light-hearted but authoritative, it tells the fascinating, often scandalous life stories of the 19th century's greatest composers and describes how they created musical history.
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